application, synthesis and evaluation levels
Students less likely to guess
Easy to construct
Stimulates more study
Allows students to demonstrate ability to organize knowledge, express opinions, show originality.
Can limit amount of material tested, therefore has decreased validity.
Subjective, potentially unreliable scoring.
Time consuming to score.
Extended response: synthesis and evaluation levels; a lot of freedom in answers
Restricted response: more consistent scoring, outlines parameters of responses
Provide reasonable time limits for thinking and writing.
Avoid letting them to answer a choice of questions (You won't get a good idea of the broadness of student achievement when they only answer a set of questions.)
Give definitive task to student-compare, analyze, evaluate, etc.
Use checklist point system to score with a model answer: write outline, determine how many points to assign to each part
Score one question at a time-all at the same time.